England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales each have their own system of private and publicly-funded healthcare, together with alternative, holistic and complementary treatments. General practioners are used to provide primary care; their referrals may lead to further services as necessary. Hospitals provide specialized care and access to accident and emergency departments. Pharmacies (other than those within hospitals) are privately owned but have contracts with the relevant health services in order to supply prescription drugs to patients.
Each NHS system also provides dental services through private dental practices and dentists can only charge NHS patients at the set rates for each country. Patients opting to be treated privately do not receive any NHS funding for the treatment.